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Geology Facts

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The Pacific and North American Plates are slipping along the San Andreas Fault at about five centimeters per year. That means that, in about 12,096,457 years, they'll be right next door.

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Igneous rocks––such as obsidian, pumice, and granite––are formed when magma, molten rock at a temperature of 600-1,300 °C, cools and hardens.

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The Hawaiian islands are moving towards Japan at a rate of about seven centimeters per year. That means that, in about 94,445,502 years, they'll be right next door.

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Sapphires and rubies are actually the same mineral, corundum. Like in our blood, iron changes a ruby's color to red. Chromium and titanium are responsible for a sapphire's blue.

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Diamonds can take up to three billion years to form and are the hardest natural substance known to mankind.

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Diamonds might be forever, but rubies, sapphires, and emeralds are actually much more rare than diamonds.

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